With the discovery of the damaging effect of cfcs and hcfcs refrigerants to the ozone layer, the hfc family of refrigerant has been widely used as their replacement. Table a superheated refrigerant4a figure a14 ph diagram for refrigerant4a figure a15 nelsonobert generalized compressibility chart table a16 properties of the atmosphere at high altitude table a17 idealgas properties of air table a18 idealgas properties of nitrogen, n 2 table a19 idealgas properties of oxygen, o 2. In todays world, other properties of the refrigerant are more important. It has long been used in a variety of airconditioning and refrigeration applications in a variety of markets. Following are properties of a good refrigerant given below.
R410a, sold under the trademarked names az20, ecofluor r410, forane 410a, freon 410a, genetron r410a, puron, and suva 410a, is a zeotropic but nearazeotropic mixture of difluoromethane ch 2 f 2, called r32 and pentafluoroethane chf 2 cf 3, called r125 that is used as a refrigerant in air conditioning applications. The refrigerant in any refrigerator or air conditioner flows continuously through the vapor compression cycle, absorbing the heat in the evaporator and releasing it in the condenser. The general conclusion of the thesis is that the refrigerant affects all of the measured properties negatively on the subject of lubrication and life of the rolling element bearing. Fellow ashrae mcquay international staunton, virginia usa 1 what is a refrigerant. Refrigerant r4a properties thermodynamic properties of refrigerant r4a. Refrigerant r4a tables of the thermodynamic properties of hfc4a have been developed and are presented here.
Spreadsheet calculations of thermodynamic properties. Alkynes have higher boiling points than alkanes or alkenes, because the electric field of an alkyne, with its increased number of weakly held. Refrigeration n changes phase due to change in pressure n most common cryogens are n solid carbon dioxide n liquid carbon cook chill systems n used to replace warm. Refrigerants thermodynamic, physical, chemical, safe ty related and environmental properties have been presented and discussed in the first part of the paper. Comparison of environmental impacts and physical properties of refrigerants ko matsunaga executive summary even before the invention of refrigeration, people wanted to improve their life by using ice to provide cold drinks and preserve food. This section presents data for the thermodynamic and transport properties of refrigerants, arranged for the occasional users. Usually, a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle that can extract heat from another body or substance. Physical properties chemical formula ch 2 fcf 3 molecular weight 102. Temperature 5 storage and handling 6 bulk and cylinder 6 maintenance 6 leak detection 6 retrofitting existing r22 systems 7 retrofit procedures 7.
This refrigerant was introduced commercially in the early 1960s for low temperature applications and is particularly suitable for hermetic compressors. Apr 12, 2020 whenever we choose them for particular use properties of refrigerants also plays a vital role in economic and environmental friendly application. These tables are based on experimental data from the database at the national institute of standards and technology nist. The present study is concerned with properties of possible alternatives to the fully halogenated chlorofluorcarbons, a class of compounds widely used as working fuids. These physical properties of refrigerants help us select the proper refrigerant for the application as per our requirement. Thermodynamic properties of duponttm freonr 22 refrigerant author. In this work we have presented our measurements of physical properties like the boiling point, critical temperature, vapor pressure, liquid density, and surface tension of hcfo1233zde. Physical properties tdx 20 r22 r407c tdx 20 ph chart enthalpy btulbm pressure psig refrigerant properties imperial bluon r458a bluon tdx 20 r458a is a refrigerant blend designed to replace r22. Please consult the msds for more comprehensive information. Desirable properties of refrigerants chemical engineering site. Physical properties of refrigerants low freezing point.
It can be blended with hfos to improve performance. Refrigerant properties glide and heat exchanger performance r404a is a quasiazeotrope refrigerant blend, which means it condenses and boils at nearly the same temperature for a given pressure temperature glide lower than 0. R4a is the nonflammable and nonexplosive, has toxicity within limits and good chemical stability. Freon refrigerants r11, r12, and r22, plus ammonia and water, will be discussed in terms of the abovementioned categories. Sulfur dioxide was widely used as refrigerant during the early 20th century. Here are some of the desirable properties of refrigerant explained in detail. Binary systems including old refrigerant generate different shapes of phase envelops. Agas au11734 r22 is a single component hcfc refrigerant that has historically been used for air conditioning, medium temperature and low temperature refrigeration. List important thermodynamic and environmental properties influencing refrigerant selection. Refrigerant r22 properties properties of refrigerant r22 dichlorodifluoromethane saturated liquid and saturated vapor imperial and metric units. Positively innovative refrigerants r32 daikin chemical europe. Refrigerant 12 dichlorodifluoromethane properties of saturated liquid and saturated vapor. The thermochemical and physical properties of each refrigerant were used to.
The most reliable way to be safe is to choose a refrigerant that is neither toxic nor flammable. Physical properties of refrigerants molecular weight, boiling, freezing and critical points engineering toolbox resources, tools and basic information for engineering and design of technical applications. A throttling valve should be used to control the flow of refrigerant to the suction side to ensure that a liquid. This makes it an excellent environmentally friendly candidate for many applications including refrigeration, foam expansion agents, and as solvents. Effects of refrigerant properties on refrigerant performance citeseerx. Refrigerants r407c and r407a properties, uses, storage, and handling.
Write the chemical formula of a refrigerant from its number. Refrigerant properties refrigerant selection involves compromises between conflicting desirable properties. Today there is no difficulty in sourcing all the necessary equipment. This paper summarizes the impact of thermo physical properties on refrigerant. Please note that for reduced gwp, klea 407a offers a good alternative. The matching of operation the transcritical air conditioning system with heating and cooling applications gives very high energy efficiency. The refrigerants have a thermodynamic property charge. Table aesuperheated refrigerant4a figure a14eph diagram for refrigerant4a table a16eproperties of the atmosphere at high altitude table a17eidealgas properties of air table a18eidealgas properties of nitrogen, n 2 table a19eidealgas properties of oxygen, o 2 table a20eidealgas properties of carbon dioxide, co 2. Physical properties general physical properties for freon 407c and freon 407a are shown in table 3. Adobe pdf users will recognize the similarity to the.
The working fluid desirable properties are related to thermodynamic and physical properties which lead to efficient cooling or heating factor and effective design of equipment, such as high evaporation heat, high volumetric refrigeration. This blend has a higher capacity at lower temperatures and matches r12 at 20f. Goodwin10 developed a set of spreadsheet calculations of thermodynamic properties. It is odorless, nontoxic, nonflammable, nonexplosive and noncorrosive. R32 refrigerant is of interest as both a blend component for alternatives to r22 and r502 such as klea 407a and klea 410a, and as an attractive low gwp candidate for air conditioning. Refrigerant r4a is a hydrofluorocarbon hfc that has zero potential to cause the depletion of the ozone layer and very little greenhouse effect. The present study is concerned with properties of possible alternatives to the fully halogenated chlorofluorcarbons, a class of compounds widely used as working fuids refrigerants in refrigeration and airconditioning. Refrigeration n changes phase due to change in pressure n most common cryogens are n solid carbon dioxide n liquid carbon cook chill systems n used to replace warm holding of foods n cook chill system. Refrigerants and their application presented by thomas e.
Measurement of physical properties of refrigerant mixtures. Refrigerants physical properties engineering toolbox. About tdx 20 refrigerant physical properties tdx 20 r22 r407c tdx 20 ph chart refrigerant properties metric bluon r458a bluon tdx 20 r458a is a refrigerant blend designed to replace r22. Technical information sheet physical properties of refrigerants. It is essential that systems be charged with liquid from the cylinder. This blend refrigerant is similar to r401a except, it is higher in r22 content. Discuss refrigerant selection criteria based on thermodynamic, thermophysical, environmental and economic properties section 26. Safety is perhaps the most important single factor in the selection of a refrigerant. As a refrigerant, it is a manufactured product that conforms to strict purity specifications. Its gwp of 675 is within the acceptable limits for refrigerant gases used in new equipment splits with a load less than 3 kg, put on the market from 01012025, in. R32 is suitable for new equipment specifically designed for r32, in applications that used to use r410a. R407c refrigerant has been formulated as a good match to the existing hcfc refrigerant r22 for use in air conditioning, chilling and refrigeration applications and was the first of the r22 alternatives to be used on a commercial scale. The physical properties of alkenes and alkynes are generally similar to those of alkanes or cycloalkanes with equal numbers of carbon atoms. Desirable properties of refrigerants used in refrigeration applications like physical, chemical, environmental properties including economic.
Table a18 idealgas properties of nitrogen, n 2 table a19 idealgas properties of oxygen, o 2 table a20 idealgas properties of carbon dioxide, co 2 table a21 idealgas properties of carbon monoxide, co table a22 idealgas properties of hydrogen, h 2 table a23 idealgas properties of water vapor, h 2 o table a24 idealgas. The predictions of system behavior and performance are aided by the known thermodynamic and transport properties of the refrigerant. Technical information at22 thermodynamic properties of dupontz freon. This paper summarizes the impact of thermophysical properties on refrigerant. To enable the use of smaller compressors and other equipment the refrigerant should have smaller vapor density. Refrigerant r507 210 refrigerant saturation temperature 210 refrigerant evaporation 210 refrigerant condensation 210 refrigerantoil relationships 210 refrigerant tables 211 saturation properties 212 pocket temperaturepressure charts 212 section 3 the refrigeration cycle simple compression refrigeration cycle 31 heat of compression 32. It also provides a closer match to r500 at airconditioning temperatures. Additional physical property data may be found in other chemours publications. General physical properties freon 12 is a colorless gas at room temperature, although it is typically compressed to a liquefied form. Most of the halogenated refrigerants meet these requirements.
Jun 02, 2019 carbon dioxide is widely used as a refrigerant in mechanical systems refrigerant, marine services, hospitals, etc. Vapour charging solstice n40 may result in the wrong refrigerant composition and could damage the system. Refrigerants color codes refrigerants and their color codes. Refrigerant mixtures are very interesting from the point of view of thermodynamics and phase diagrams.
R22 basic physical properties agc chemicals company. Equations have been developed, based on the modified benedictwebbrubin mbwr equation of state, which represent the data with accuracy and consistency throughout the entire range of temperature, pressure, and density. Refrigerants thermodynamic, physical, chemical, safe ty related reading a pdf on a blackberry and environmental properties have been presented and discussed in the first part of the. R4a is an hfc refrigerant used on its own as a pure refrigerant and also as a component in many blends. In the last two centuries, human ingenuity made it possible to control fully. Request pdf measurement of physical properties of refrigerant mixtures. All of the r407series refrigerants are based on blends of the three hfc refrigerants r32, r125 and r4a. R404a refrigerant is an established alternative to r22 and r502. The physical properties of a fluid largely determine its suitability for use in a given application. Table a1 molar mass, gas constant, and criticalpoint properties table a2 idealgas specific heats of various common gases table a3 properties of common liquids, solids, and foods table a4 saturated watertemperature table table a5 saturated waterpressure table table a6 superheated water table a7 compressed liquid water table a8 saturated icewater vapor. Table 1 lists selected thermo physical properties ptb 1427 pdf of r404a and r410a in. Duponttm refrigerants, technical information keywords. Physical properties of refrigerants molecular weight, boiling, freezing and critical points. In the last two centuries, human ingenuity made it.
These properties are pressure, temperature, volume, density, enthalpy, flammability, ability to mix with oil, moisture reaction, odor, toxicity, leakage tendency, and leakage detection. It is epa and ashrae approved for hvac and refrigeration applications. Whenever we choose them for particular use properties of refrigerants also plays a vital role in economic and environmental friendly application. Nov 21, 2012 this makes it an excellent environmentally friendly candidate for many applications including refrigeration, foam expansion agents, and as solvents. It is normally odorless, although at high concentrations in air greater than 20 percent by volume it has a faint etherlike smell. Refrigerant properties refrigerants can be characterized by a number of properties. Table 1 lists selected thermophysical properties ptb 1427 pdf of r404a and r410a in.
These properties can be divided into favourable thermodynamic, chemical and physical properties. A next generation refrigerant properties database purdue epubs. Determination of phase diagrams accurate knowledge of high pressure phase equilibrium is of utmost interest in designing. R4a is also known as tetrafluoroethane cf3ch2f from the family of hfc refrigerant. Thermodynamic properties of duponttm freonr 22 refrigerant. Air2 1 isopentane 14 refrigerant 28 ammonia 2 lithium 15 refrigerant 14 29. The pressureenthalpy diagrams for freon 407c are shown in figures 1 and 2. Refrigerants r407c and r407a properties, uses, storage. The system pressures are much higher than in conventional systems, and all the components are designed accordingly.1468 792 1009 1500 928 1196 863 677 1373 1043 169 612 15 1336 955 871 444 102 922 579 831 780 267 1252 191 906 654 790 889 150 1298 515 612 898 1157 1127 227 1265 434 542 544 1014 298